A coloured chart of Portsmouth Harbour, Spithead, and part of the Isle of Wight, on a scale of one mile to an inch
This is a map of Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight dating from 1585. It has been annotated by William Cecil Lord Burghley, Secretary of State to Elizabeth I, who has added the names "Westburhunt" and "Chichest". Burghley was an avid map collector and his application of geographical knowledge to matters of government is well known. Three beacons are indicated on 'Portesdowne', showing the systems in place for alerting the locality in an invasion scenario. Either side of these beacons are red windmill symbols named "westmyll" and "estmill", two further windmills, again highlighted in red, lie towards the centre of the map. It is likely that these have been highlighted due to their height which would facilitate their use as vantage points or beacons. There is a scale bar indicating a scale of one inch to a mile. Portsmouth became the focus of a new program of defensive works in 1584. Since the accession of the Protestant Elizabeth I to the English throne in 1558 Anglo-Spanish relationship had deteriorated. The continued English raids on Spanish colonial interests and England’s support of the Protestant rebellion in the Spanish ruled Netherlands had induced the Catholic Philip II to plan an invasion of England. It is likely that this map, detailing the beacons in the area, was produced for military purposes connected with the strengthening of the defences for the Portsmouth area against the expected Spanish Invasion. William Cecil, Lord Burghley
1 : 31680 The Ordnance Survey took particular care in plotting the south coast of England, as this was the area most immediately vulnerable to invasion. This plan notes military barracks at Selsea, Aldwick and Bognor to the bottom right of the plan. Buildings are blocked in red and black ink and infilled at Chichester, in the centre of the plan, and Arundel, at the right. A poor house and pest house are located a considerable distance beyond the boundaries of Chichester.
Bishop's Waltham, Southampton
This drawing was completed in 1806. The detail with which it records the road network is greater than in previous maps - testimony to the Ordnance Survey's urgency and military intent. The Roman road from Winchester to Old Sarum is marked running from the top left of the map, with smaller sections of the road shown in the Chilworth area. The origin and terminus of these roads are also noted. A line with a circle at each end leads from the margins of the map to Morstead. This line was used to plot locations and landmarks. Several "Ancient Entrenchments" are marked, notably an iron-age hillfort near Winchester called St. Catherine's Hill. The fort is indicated by concentric rings of dark, cross-hatched strokes ('hachures'). Week Turnpike Gate is marked on the road between Week and Winchester. The recording of a dog kennel above Little Sombourne and bathing houses on the coast between Southampton and Redbridge reveal the meticulousness of the Survey, and perhaps too the interests of the draughtsman. Crocker, Edmund