Estates at Windsor, Berkshire
This is a manuscript map of the area surrounding Windsor in Berkshire. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. Burghley was in charge of administration for the Royal Estate of Windsor. The Royal Estates were notoriously slackly administered, a flaw that no official involved was keen to remedy as there were considerable personal advantages to be gained from inadequacies in the system. The map is drawn to scale with a scale bar of 5.5 - 6 miles. The many parks are shown by enclosure symbols, an important feature of any landscape for military purposes as it was in parks that troops could rest and horses graze. Communication routes such as roads and pathways are indicated by double or single broken lines and the rivers and the points at which they are bridged are also shown. The waterways were a vital communication route at the time, especially in this area where the Thames provides direct access to the centre of London.
Map of Forests around Windsor
Map of the forests around Windsor from "A Description of the Honour of Windesor", John Norden's survey of Windsor. The title page states that the survey was "taken and performed by the perambulation view and delineation of John Norden In Anno 1607". The plans are the result of a survey conducted on foot by Norden. The maps in this volume show communication routes, individual buildings, field boundaries and parkland along with details of wildlife and human activity, such as stags in Windsor Park and people boating on the Thames. The scale at which the maps are presented varies throughout the volume, with feet, perches and miles being the units of measurement recorded by a scale bar. John Norden is best known for his work "Speculum Britainiae", literally a "Mirror of Britain", which in its attempt to include the road names and town plans, lacking on many county maps of the period, was a direct ancestor of the modern A-Z. As well as producing several county maps in the 1590s, Norden worked as a land surveyor producing surveys for landowners and was the author of a work which outlines principles of surveying, known as the "Surveyor's Dialogue". Norden, John
This is a map of Hampshire by Christopher Saxton, datingfrom 1575. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. This map is actually a proof copy of one which forms part of Christopher Saxton’s Atlas of England and Wales. This atlas was first published as a whole in 1579. It consists of 35 coloured maps depicting the counties of England and Wales. The atlas is of great significance to British cartography as it set a standard of cartographic representation in Britain and the maps remained the basis for English county mapping, with few exceptions, until after 1750. During the reign of Elizabeth I, map use became more common, with many government matters referring to increasingly accurate maps with consistent scales and symbols, made possible by advances in surveying techniques. Illustrating the increasing use of maps in government matters, Lord Burghley, who had been determined to have England and Wales mapped in detail from the 1550s, selected the cartographer Christopher Saxton to produce a detailed and consistent survey of the country. The financier of the project was Thomas Seckford, Master of Requests at the Court of Elizabeth I, whose arms appear, along with the royal crest, on each map. Lord Burghley added several place names to the map. This map was engraved by Leonardus Terwoort, one of a team of seven English and Flemish engravers employed to produced the copper plates for the atlas. Saxton, Christopher Terwoort, Leonardus Antverpianus