Estates at Windsor, Berkshire
This is a manuscript map of the area surrounding Windsor in Berkshire. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. Burghley was in charge of administration for the Royal Estate of Windsor. The Royal Estates were notoriously slackly administered, a flaw that no official involved was keen to remedy as there were considerable personal advantages to be gained from inadequacies in the system. The map is drawn to scale with a scale bar of 5.5 - 6 miles. The many parks are shown by enclosure symbols, an important feature of any landscape for military purposes as it was in parks that troops could rest and horses graze. Communication routes such as roads and pathways are indicated by double or single broken lines and the rivers and the points at which they are bridged are also shown. The waterways were a vital communication route at the time, especially in this area where the Thames provides direct access to the centre of London.
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.Turnpike roads in faded ochre run from Guildford at the top of the map through Witley, at the centre left, on to 'Aldfold' at the bottom left., The mileage appears along the route in black-ink figures., Tollgates are marked 'TG'., Open dotting is used to depict the untilled agricultural land predominant around the river valleys., The hill shading and attention to communication routes conform to the military and cartographic standards employed by the Ordnance Survey.
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.This map is in excellent condition and has retained its colour through two centuries. The turquoise wash, used to indicate water, remains particularly bright and vibrant. Commonland is the most prominent topographical feature in the drawing, denoted by open dotting. Large commons are shown at Frensham, Fernham, Thursley, Witley and Hinkley. Commons were carefully detailed by the surveyors, with a view to their possible use as military encampments. Although illustrating archaeological features did not become obligatory until 1816, this map notes a Bronze Age structure called the Devil's Jump, near Elstead at the centre of the map.
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.This map is in poor repair. Its edges are dirty and damaged, and a join is visible where the drawing has been torn. Triangulation points can be seen at the map's boundaries, along with a series of stitch holes. Silk tape was wound through these holes to protect the map in the field. .The drawing details a large number of commons, including Pirbright, Ham Haw and Ockham. These are depicted by patterns of open dotting. Basingstoke Canal also features. It was completed in 1794, only a few years before this map was drawn. Blue washes, used to depict water, have faded. The town of Chertsey appears towards the top right, along with the ruins of Chertsey Abbey. The abbey was founded in AD666, as a house for the Benedictine Order, and dissolved in 1537.
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This is a rough plot, or field sketch, of the chalk hills to the south of Basingstoke, part of Hampshire's North Downs. Buildings appear infilled and blocked in red ink at the settlements of Bighton and Chawton, at the bottom of the plan, and in black ink, at Bentworth, above Chawton. The map is drawn on an irregularly cut sheet that is pieced together with detail extending over the joins. The paper carries the watermark '1794.'