Berwick St. John
Small red crosses at Baverstoke, at the top centre, and Et Knoyle, at the top left,mark observation points used by the surveyor to plot topographical details and measure distances. The draughtsman has faithfully recorded the relative relief of the hills and indicated areas of woodland, using various shades of green to distinguish woods from grassland. The ancient circular earthworks of Chiselbury are marked by concentric rings on White Sheet Hill, in the centre of the drawing.
1 : 31680 Although this drawing was surveyed six years before the obligatory inclusion of archaeological sites on drawings, several are featured. The most famous of these is Stonehenge, to the right of the drawing. Ancient camps, earthworks, castles and grave mounds ('tumuli') pepper the area, indicated by concentric shapes and a title in neat script. Their inclusion reveals the meticulous nature of the survey. To the right of the drawing, opposite Wishford, a trigonometrical station is indicated by a dot within a circle (annotated 'Col. Mudge's station' - Major-General William Mudge was Superintendent of the Ordnance Survey). This station denotes a point from which angular measurements were taken. In the right hand margin of the drawing a point titled "End of Base" marks the end of the Salisbury Plain baseline: an important measurement allowing for the triangulation of the area. Crocker, Edmund
1 : 31680 This drawing is rich in archaeological sites, among them the prehistoric monument known as Stonehenge. Situated on Salisbury Plain, it is the most celebrated megaithic monument in England. The iron-age hillfort of Old Sarum is also marked. A castle and cathedral were built on its earthworks during the 12th century, but abandoned when a new cathedral was built a mile and a half away - the foundation of the modern city of Salisbury. The red line extending from Old Sarum to Beacon Hill is the baseline for the triangulation of the area. Several other archaeological sites are marked: the iron-age hillforts at Vispasians Camp, Ogbury Camp and Clorus's Camp. Crocker, Edmund
Several orientation points used to plot the survey appear at the edges of this drawing. The draughtsman has recorded the precise layout of the fir plantations at Everly, a chalk pit on Bushton Down, and the Roman road from Bath to Malborough, which is at the top of the drawing. The Kennet and Avon Canal also features. Opened in 1810 to better exploit the resources of the Somerset Coalfields, the canal is contemporary with the survey of this drawing. Extending from Shepherds Shore, a thick grey line is marked 'The Wansdyke'. This is a linear defensive earthwork dating from the 5th century. The area is rich is archaeological sites: Casterely Camp on Black Heath is a large hillfort. The paper is watermarked JAMES WHATMAN TURKEY MILL KENT 1807.