Survey of the Sussex Coast, from Barnham Mille to Rye
This is part of a survey of the Sussex coast made by Sir Thomas Palmer Knight and Walter Coverte and records the section of the coast from Barnham Mille to Rye. Sir Thomas Palmer Knight and Walter Coverte were Deputy Lieutenants of Sussex and its coast line. This survey was made in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1578 and is endorsed almost certainly by Nicholas Reynolds 1587. It contains five coloured maps of the coast and inland places of Sussex from Thorney and Selsey Bill to Winchelsea and Camber Castle. Details include compass roses and scale bars in colour. It includes a scale bar showing 'Englishe Myles': 6 miles = 190mm, equating to approximately 1:50688 miles. This survey by Palmer and Covert was commissioned in order to build up defences against the Spanish Armada. Since the accession of the Protestant Elizabeth I the Anglo-Spanish relaionship had deteriorated. Raids on transatlantic shipping by English seamen such as Francis Drake and England’s support of the Protestant rebellion in the Spanish ruled Netherlands inflamed matters further and the Catholic Philip II was induced to invade. The survey is drawn in ink and colour washes on vellum, and features descriptions of coastal locations. The concern with defence is apparent here as the draughtsman has included the beacon network of the area. Windmills in the area are also noted. Due to their height these could also be used as vantage points. Locations of battery's or arsenal stores are recorded by a group of three triangles. Camber Castle is also shown. This was one of the defences built to defend the coast after Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain signed a peace treaty in 1538, making an invasion of England by their combined forces probable. Information is recorded in a secretary hand with the title and place names in italic.
Palmer, Sir Thomas, Coverte, Walter and Reynolds, Nicholas
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Produced against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, these Ordnance Survey drawings exhibit a hightened interest in defence, particularly along the vulnerable south coast. Military barracks are recorded at Hastings, 'Bopeep' and Bexhill. A faded aquamarine wash defines the coastline from Pevensey Bay to Hastings, with red circles indicating observation stations used to plot the distinctive features of the land being surveyed. Inland, agricultural land (delineated by field boundaries) and woodland dominate the landscape.
This plan of the Sussex coast from Fairlight to Rye Bay is made up of two separate sheets of paper joined together, with detail extending over the joins. It was drawn on rectangular sheet lines and is enclosed by a black border. Fields are coloured brown where cultivated, and green or black where untilled. Stone structures are coloured red, something particularly noticeable in the depiction of buildings in the major settlements of Winchelsea and Rye. Produced against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, the drawings exhibit the concern with defence, particularly along the vulnerable south coast. A military battery is documented at Pier Head below Rye. This drawing was produced before the digging of the Royal Military Canal was approved by the government.
Fairlight (East Sussex)
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This outline plan in black and white ink follows the East Sussex coastline from Fairlight, at the bottom, to Beckley and Northiam, at the top. Such drawings represent the halfway point between the original protraction and the 'fair copy', and give no indication of relative relief. Triangles ruled in red ink cover the map, revealing the angular measurements taken to plot the location of individual topographical features.