Mouths of the Thames and Medway from Ipswich to Sandwich and Maldon and Rochester to the Sea
This is a map showing the mouths of the Thames and the Medway from Ipswich to Sandwich and Maldon and Rochester to the sea. It dates from around 1544 and is annotated Rycherd Cavendishe made this carde’. Richard Cavendish was a master gunner who had supervised new defence works at Berwick and Wark in 1522-3. The map seems to have been made with the purposes of defence and navigation in mind. Coastal forts and navigational channels are shown. The shoreline is exaggerated in order to illustrate clearly how an enemy might move ashore and how they might be stopped. In this case the enemy was England’s ancient adversary France, with whom hostilities had resumed in 1542. This map of the vulnerable south east coast, was made against this historical background. The fear of a French invasion was very real. In 1514 the French had invaded Brighton, and in 1545 French ships entered the Solent and landed on the Isle of Wight. The lines which cover the sea areas of the map are called rhumb lines. These are lines of constant bearing that radiate from compass roses and allow the sailor to plot a course from harbour to harbour using dividers and straight edge. Vignettes of several towns are included on this map, Sandwich, Rochester and Canterbury are shown. The view of Essex is possibly derived from a survey Cavendish made in 1520. Other settlements are formalized showing rows of red roofed houses with a church in the centre. A scale bar annotated by 3’ is included, however, as this occupies a green painted area it is likely that this was added later.
Chart of the mouth of the River Thames, c1540
This map, showing parts of Kent and Sussex, comes from a 16th-century portfolio of coastal charts and drawings It incorporates miniature copies of town plans that are now lost including what are probably the earliest plans of Canterbury, Rochester and Sandwich The mapmaker was Sir Richard Cavendish With its emphasis on sandbanks and beaches, the map was evidently intended for navigation and defence purposes The decorative quality of the map suggests it was meant for the eyes of the king, Henry VIII North is to the left of the map and East to the top, making the map appear on its side to modern eyes
Cavendish, Sir Richard
A Coloured Chart of the Course of the Rivers Thames and Medway, and of the Coasts of Kent and Sussex to Shoreham, with an Account of the Tides
This manuscript map of the south-east coast of England can be dated to around 1596. Although unsigned the handwriting suggests a possible attribution to [William] Borough who is known for his work as a harbour consultant .The map is concerned with the defence of the Thames and of London itself which was threatened by the Anglo-Spanish war. Raids on transatlantic shipping by English seamen such as Francis Drake and England’s support of the Protestant rebellion in the Spanish ruled Netherlands had induced the Catholic Philip II to plan an invasion of England. Although the Spanish armada was defeated by the English in 1588, England remained at war with Spain for many years and further attempts to invade were made by Philip of Spain. It is thought that this map was drawn between the dispersal of the "second Armada" in October 1596 and the assembly of the third Armada’ in the following spring. The draughtsman has borrowed topographical and hydrographic information from contemporary sources, maps by Symonson and Robert Norman. The careful attention given to the coast line around Rye and the differentiation between the original line of the cliffs and the deposits which created Romney Marsh is striking.