This is a manuscript map of County Durham. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. The map dates from 1569 and is by John Rudd, the man to whom Christopher Saxton was an apprentice to in 1570. John Rudd was Vicar of Dewsbury from 1554 to 1570. Rudd had a keen interest in cartography and had been engaged in the 1550s in making a "platt" of England. In 1561 Rudd was granted leave to travel further to map the country and it is likely that Saxton accompanied him, acquiring his skills for surveying. This map is contemporary with the uprising of the northern peers in defence of Mary Queen of Scotts. A dotted line inserted on the map between the end of one river tributary and the start of another neatly illustrates how they were used as communication routes, the fastest way to transport men and arms. Knowledge of breaks in this route system was essential. Rudd, John William Cecil, Lord Burghley
DUNELMIENSIS Episcopatus f.68
This is a map of County Durham by Christopher Saxton dating from 1577. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. This map is actually a proof copy of one which forms part of Christopher Saxton’s Atlas of England and Wales. This atlas was first published as a whole in 1579. It consists of 35 coloured maps depicting the counties of England and Wales. The atlas is of great significance to British cartography as it set a standard of cartographic representation in Britain and the maps remained the basis for English county mapping, with few exceptions, until after 1750. During the reign of Elizabeth I, map use became more common, with many government matters referring to increasingly accurate maps with consistent scales and symbols, made possible by advances in surveying techniques. Illustrating the increasing use of maps in government matters, Lord Burghley, who had been determined to have England and Wales mapped in detail from the 1550s, selected the cartographer Christopher Saxton to produce a detailed and consistent survey of the country. The financier of the project was Thomas Seckford, Master of Requests at the Court of Elizabeth I, whose arms appear, along with the royal crest, on each map. Burghley has annotated this map, adding several place names. The map was engraved by Augustinus Ryther, the most accomplished member of a team of seven English and Flemish engravers employed to produce the copper plates for the atlas. Saxton, Christopher Ryther, Augustinus
Smith's New Accurate Map of the Lakes, 1800
The popularity of the Lake District as a destination for tourists created a market for maps of the region that were not only accurate but also gave an impression of the scenery. In this map we can follow the course of the River Duddon from the Furness Fells down through Dunnerdale and beneath the shadow of Black Combe to the sea. Black Combe features in two of Wordsworth’s poems. One was written to celebrate the work of the Ordnance Survey, which was producing comprehensive and detailed maps of the country. During 1807 and 1808, Captain William Mudge and his team of surveyors hauled their heavy equipment to the windswept peak of Black Combe. Wordsworth visited the summit where the "geographic labourer pitched his tent" and looked out over the landscape Mudge had surveyed, declaring it a "display august of man’s inheritance, of Britain’s calm felicity and power!"