Map of Shropshire f.93
This is a manuscript map of Shropshire, one of four in the same style and hand. Its most interesting feature is the castle shown at Clun, which dominates the town. Other topographical features are limited to hills and trees, giving a general impression of the relief of the land and its coverage. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I's Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. Here Lord Burghley has added a place name adjacent the river, near to Lent Warden. Burghley was primarily interested in communication routes, an essential feature in any defence program for an area. Rivers were the most important of these communication routes as travel by water was often the fastest. Therefore a good knowledge of the locations along a particular river was essential for navigation and ultimately for the defence of the area.
William Cecil, Lord Burghley
Map of Shropshire f. 75*
This is a manuscript map of Shropshire. It forms part of an atlat which belonged to Lord Burghley, Secretary of State to Elizabeth I, who used it to illustrate domestic matters. It shows only the principal towns, distinguishing between those with a castle and those without by means of a symbol of two connected towers with crenellations. The River Severn, marked Sabrina F, is charted. Lord Burghley has added a name adjacent to a place where the river is bridged. Lord Burghley was concerned with communication routes as revealed by his annotation. The draughtsman has indicated relief by hill symbols in two places. The map features a scale bar, but this is partly obscured by damage to the map.
DENBIGH AC FLINT f.115
This is a map of Denbigh and Flint by Christopher Saxton dating from 1577. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. This map is actually a proof copy of one which forms part of Christopher Saxton’s Atlas of England and Wales. This atlas was first published as a whole in 1579. It consists of 35 coloured maps depicting the counties of England and Wales. The atlas is of great significance to British cartography as it set a standard of cartographic representation in Britain and the maps remained the basis for English county mapping, with few exceptions, until after 1750. During the reign of Elizabeth I, map use became more common, with many government matters referring to increasingly accurate maps with consistent scales and symbols, made possible by advances in surveying techniques. Illustrating the increasing use of maps in government matters, Lord Burghley, who had been determined to have England and Wales mapped in detail from the 1550s, selected the cartographer Christopher Saxton to produce a detailed and consistent survey of the country. The financier of the project was Thomas Seckford, Master of Requests at the Court of Elizabeth I, whose arms appear, along with the royal crest, on each map. Burghley has annotated this map, adding place names to the map and notes about the shire towns of Denbigh in the margins. At the time England was under threat of invasion from Catholic Spain, a threat which culminated in the events of the Spanish Armada. Defence of the realm depended on a good geographic and topographic knowledge, explaining Burghley's use of maps and his annotation of them, particularly at locations along the coast. The map was engraved by Remigius Hogenbergius, one of a team of seven English and Flemish engravers employed to produce the copper plates for the atlas.
William Cecil, Lord Burghley