Humber from Hull and Barton to Sea
This is a map showing the River Humber, River Hull and the town of hull. It dates from between 1541-1547. The map is drawn in a loose pictorial style but despite this the defences of Hull are shown in accurate detail. These fortifications were built under the instruction of Henry VIII to protect the eastern side of the town. Plans for the building work were made in 1541 after the king visited in October of that year and dictated that the eastern side of the town, defended only by the River Hull, must be strengthened. At this time Henry VIII feared an invasion from the combined forces of France and Spain. In 1538 Francis I of France, and Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain signed a peace treaty. This union gave rise to the possibility that France and Spain may combine forces to invade England. France was England’s historical enemy and Henry VIII’s divorce of Catherine of Aragon, Charles V’s aunt, had offended the militantly catholic King of Spain. The town of Hull, located on the east coast of the country, near the Anglo-Scottish border occupies a position of strategic importance as it provided a base for war against Scotland or Catholic Europe As can be seen here the fortifications at Hull consisted of two large trefoil headed blockhouses’ or bulwarks’ at opposite ends of the harbour, with a castle’ between them. Connecting these fortresses was a crenellated wall almost half a mile long running parallel to the river. This would provide defences which could protect against overland attack from the east, or naval invasion from the Humber. The draughtsman has accurately recorded the unusual trefoil shapes of the bulwarks, the segmental forms of the castle and the angled bend and crenellations of the connecting wall. In December 1543 costs were given as 21,056 5s. 6d in total. This chart could date from as early as October 1541, when the King visited Hull in October 1541 and expressed concern that the east side of the town was vulnerable to an attack.
LINCOLNIAE NOTINGHAMMIAE Comitatuu
This map of Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire is from the 1583 edition of the Saxton atlas of England and Wales. This atlas was first published as a whole in 1579. It consists of 35 coloured maps depicting the counties of England and Wales. The atlas is of great significance to British cartography as it set a standard of cartographic representation in Britain and the maps remained the basis for English county mapping, with few exceptions, until after 1750. During the reign of Elizabeth I map use became more common, with many government matters referring to increasingly accurate maps with consistent scales and symbols, made possible by advances in surveying techniques. Illustrating the increasing used of maps in government matters, Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State, who had been determined to have England and Wales mapped in detail from the 1550s, selected the cartographer Christopher Saxton to produce a detailed and consistent survey of the country. The financier of the project was Thomas Seckford Master of Requests at the Court of Elizabeth I, whose arms appear, along with the royal crest, on each map. A decorative scale bar holds Saxton’s name and also that of the engraver of this map, engraver Remigius Hogenberg, one of seven English and Flemish engravers employed to produce the copper plates for the atlas. Relief, in the form of uniform rounded representations of hills, is the main topographical feature presented in the maps. Rather than provide a scientific representation of relative relief these give a general impression of the lie of the land. Settlements and notable buildings are also recorded pictorially; a small building with a spire represents a village, while more important towns, such as Hereford are indicated by groups of buildings. Saxton, Christopher Ryther, Augustine