1 : 31680 .Turnpike roads in faded ochre run from Guildford at the top of the map through Witley, at the centre left, on to 'Aldfold' at the bottom left., The mileage appears along the route in black-ink figures., Tollgates are marked 'TG'., Open dotting is used to depict the untilled agricultural land predominant around the river valleys., The hill shading and attention to communication routes conform to the military and cartographic standards employed by the Ordnance Survey. Budgen, Thomas
This is a map of Hampshire by Christopher Saxton, datingfrom 1575. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. This map is actually a proof copy of one which forms part of Christopher Saxton’s Atlas of England and Wales. This atlas was first published as a whole in 1579. It consists of 35 coloured maps depicting the counties of England and Wales. The atlas is of great significance to British cartography as it set a standard of cartographic representation in Britain and the maps remained the basis for English county mapping, with few exceptions, until after 1750. During the reign of Elizabeth I, map use became more common, with many government matters referring to increasingly accurate maps with consistent scales and symbols, made possible by advances in surveying techniques. Illustrating the increasing use of maps in government matters, Lord Burghley, who had been determined to have England and Wales mapped in detail from the 1550s, selected the cartographer Christopher Saxton to produce a detailed and consistent survey of the country. The financier of the project was Thomas Seckford, Master of Requests at the Court of Elizabeth I, whose arms appear, along with the royal crest, on each map. Lord Burghley added several place names to the map. This map was engraved by Leonardus Terwoort, one of a team of seven English and Flemish engravers employed to produced the copper plates for the atlas. Saxton, Christopher Terwoort, Leonardus Antverpianus
1 : 21120 Triangulation allows the relative location of individual topographical features to be plotted accurately. This drawing shows the primary triangulation of southern England, the lengths of the sides of each triangle being noted. Stations shown include Dunnose, Bagshot Heath, Inkpen Hill and the Salisbury Plain base. The points of the triangles provided the surveyor with references to which, by measurement or angular observation, he could precisely relate the position of other topographical features. Angular observations were made using a theodolite. Triangulation points were carefully chosen. Elevated sites were preferred where possible, particularly the tops of hills and church towers.