Mouths of the Thames and Medway from Ipswich to Sandwich and Maldon and Rochester to the Sea
This is a map showing the mouths of the Thames and the Medway from Ipswich to Sandwich and Maldon and Rochester to the sea. It dates from around 1544 and is annotated Rycherd Cavendishe made this carde’. Richard Cavendish was a master gunner who had supervised new defence works at Berwick and Wark in 1522-3. The map seems to have been made with the purposes of defence and navigation in mind. Coastal forts and navigational channels are shown. The shoreline is exaggerated in order to illustrate clearly how an enemy might move ashore and how they might be stopped. In this case the enemy was England’s ancient adversary France, with whom hostilities had resumed in 1542. This map of the vulnerable south east coast, was made against this historical background. The fear of a French invasion was very real. In 1514 the French had invaded Brighton, and in 1545 French ships entered the Solent and landed on the Isle of Wight. The lines which cover the sea areas of the map are called rhumb lines. These are lines of constant bearing that radiate from compass roses and allow the sailor to plot a course from harbour to harbour using dividers and straight edge. Vignettes of several towns are included on this map, Sandwich, Rochester and Canterbury are shown. The view of Essex is possibly derived from a survey Cavendish made in 1520. Other settlements are formalized showing rows of red roofed houses with a church in the centre. A scale bar annotated by 3’ is included, however, as this occupies a green painted area it is likely that this was added later.
Chart of the mouth of the River Thames, c1540
This map, showing parts of Kent and Sussex, comes from a 16th-century portfolio of coastal charts and drawings It incorporates miniature copies of town plans that are now lost including what are probably the earliest plans of Canterbury, Rochester and Sandwich The mapmaker was Sir Richard Cavendish With its emphasis on sandbanks and beaches, the map was evidently intended for navigation and defence purposes The decorative quality of the map suggests it was meant for the eyes of the king, Henry VIII North is to the left of the map and East to the top, making the map appear on its side to modern eyes
Cavendish, Sir Richard
Essex f. 10
This map of Essex is taken from a work entitled ""A CHOROGRAPHICALL description of the several Shires and Islands of Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Sussex, Hamshire, Weighte, Garnesey and Jersey, performed by the travel and view of John Norden, 1595."" The map forms part of an omnibus volume of Norden's intended series of county guides, the Speculum Britanniae, which was never completed. It is dedicated to Elizabeth I, in whose reign the use of maps became more common. Under Elizabeth’s patronage the first, mostly accurate and detailed image of Britain was recorded by Christopher Saxton in his atlas of 1579. The volume that this map is from was meant for presentation to the Queen in the hope of securing her financial support for the project. This map of Essex is derived from Saxton’s work, in that relief is shown pictorially by small hill symbols, woodland and parks are shown by small trees, the later with a fence surrounding and surrounding counties are left blank. The main difference however between this and the Saxton maps is that this includes the road network and indicates the homes of the leading aristocracy and gentry. Roads are shown in beige, clearly linking the settlements, which are shown pictorially and highlighted with a red dot. London appears in the lower left corner. This development is significant as it shows the progression from a presentation of the county, to a means to practically navigate it. As a further tool in this endeavour the map is squared off with an Alpha numeric border. The depiction of roads and the orientation grid are derived from German prototypes. The Elizabethan coat of arms, appears to the left and sea monsters and ships provide decoration.
ESSEXIAE COMITAT f.36
This is a map of Essex by Christopher Saxton which dates from 1576. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State, whoused this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. This map is actually a proof copy of one which forms part of Christopher Saxton’s Atlas of England and Wales. This atlas was first published as a whole in 1579. It consists of 35 coloured maps depicting the counties of England and Wales. The atlas is of great significance to British cartography as it set a standard of cartographic representation in Britain and the maps remained the basis for English county mapping, with few exceptions, until after 1750. During the reign of Elizabeth I, map use became more common, with many government matters referring to increasingly accurate maps with consistent scales and symbols, made possible by advances in surveying techniques. Illustrating the increasing use of maps in government matters, Lord Burghley, who had been determined to have England and Wales mapped in detail from the 1550s, selected the cartographer Christopher Saxton to produce a detailed and consistent survey of the country. The financier of the project was Thomas Seckford Master of Requests at the Court of Elizabeth I, whose arms appear, along with the royal crest, on each map. Lord Burghley has added several place names to the map. At the mouth of the river Blackwater Lord Burghley has also written "Heyghfeld fayre and fatt, Barndon park better than that, Coppledon beares a Crown, Copthall best of all". The last-named is probably Sir Thomas Heneage's seat, near Epping in. Essex. The name of the engraver of the map has not been included but would have been one of a team of seven English and Flemish engravers employed to produce the copper plates for the atlas.