Although it was not obligatory to record archaeological sites until 1816, many draughtsmen displayed their interest in history by indicating them prior to this date. At Pleshey, to the centre-bottom of the plan, a dark circular form represents the prehistoric earthworks used by the Romans, Saxons and Normans as a defensive position. At Barrington Hall to the left of centre, near the top, the details of ornamental gardens and avenues of trees are shown, an indication of the meticulous nature of the Survey.
Pencil lines radiating from trigonometrical stations cover this drawing. They show the angles used for measuring distances and plotting topographical features. To the left of the map on Chestnut Common, the word 'flag' denotes the site of such a station. Hoddesden Park Wood and surrounding woodland are shown by individual trees with a line at the base, indicating shadow. This laborious technique was often replaced by a more generalised, stippled representation of treetops. The Lee River, running from Standstead at the top of this drawing, branches to form a canal leading down to the Powder Mills, which manufactured Gun Powder for shipping to London. Locks on the canal are shown in red
A New and Correct Mapp of Middlesex, Essex and Hertfordshire
Bland, Joseph, Parker, Samuel, Smyth, Payler and Warburton, John
HARTFORDIAE COMITATUS f.34
This is a map of Herefordshire by Christopher Saxton which dates from 1577. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. This map is actually a proof copy of one which forms part of Christopher Saxton’s Atlas of England and Wales. This atlas was first published as a whole in 1579. It consists of 35 coloured maps depicting the counties of England and Wales. The atlas is of great significance to British cartography as it set a standard of cartographic representation in Britain and the maps remained the basis for English county mapping, with few exceptions, until after 1750. During the reign of Elizabeth I, map use became more common, with many government matters referring to increasingly accurate maps with consistent scales and symbols, made possible by advances in surveying techniques. Illustrating the increasing use of maps in government matters, Lord Burghley, who had been determined to have England and Wales mapped in detail from the 1550s, selected the cartographer Christopher Saxton to produce a detailed and consistent survey of the country. The financier of the project was Thomas Seckford Master of Requests at the Court of Elizabeth I, whose arms appear, along with the royal crest, on each map. Lord Burghley has added several place names to the map. This map was engraved by Nicholaus Reynoldus one of a team of seven English and Flemish engravers employed to produced the copper plates for the atlas. Saxton, Christopher Reynoldus, Nicholaus