Survey of the Sussex Coast, from Barnham Mille to Rye
This is part of a survey of the Sussex coast made by Sir Thomas Palmer Knight and Walter Coverte and records the section of the coast from Barnham Mille to Rye. Sir Thomas Palmer Knight and Walter Coverte were Deputy Lieutenants of Sussex and its coast line. This survey was made in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1578 and is endorsed almost certainly by Nicholas Reynolds 1587. It contains five coloured maps of the coast and inland places of Sussex from Thorney and Selsey Bill to Winchelsea and Camber Castle. Details include compass roses and scale bars in colour. It includes a scale bar showing 'Englishe Myles': 6 miles = 190mm, equating to approximately 1:50688 miles. This survey by Palmer and Covert was commissioned in order to build up defences against the Spanish Armada. Since the accession of the Protestant Elizabeth I the Anglo-Spanish relaionship had deteriorated. Raids on transatlantic shipping by English seamen such as Francis Drake and England’s support of the Protestant rebellion in the Spanish ruled Netherlands inflamed matters further and the Catholic Philip II was induced to invade. The survey is drawn in ink and colour washes on vellum, and features descriptions of coastal locations. The concern with defence is apparent here as the draughtsman has included the beacon network of the area. Windmills in the area are also noted. Due to their height these could also be used as vantage points. Locations of battery's or arsenal stores are recorded by a group of three triangles. Camber Castle is also shown. This was one of the defences built to defend the coast after Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain signed a peace treaty in 1538, making an invasion of England by their combined forces probable. Information is recorded in a secretary hand with the title and place names in italic. Palmer, Sir Thomas, Coverte, Walter and Reynolds, Nicholas
1 : 31680 Produced against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, these Ordnance Survey drawings exhibit a hightened interest in defence, particularly along the vulnerable south coast. Military barracks are recorded at Hastings, 'Bopeep' and Bexhill. A faded aquamarine wash defines the coastline from Pevensey Bay to Hastings, with red circles indicating observation stations used to plot the distinctive features of the land being surveyed. Inland, agricultural land (delineated by field boundaries) and woodland dominate the landscape.
A Chart of Rye Harbour, the Island of Oxney, and the Adjacent Country
This is a map of Rye Harbour and the Isle of Oxney, dating from around 1600. Positioned on the estuary of the River Rother, Rye affords a clear view of the Romney Marches, making it a valuable post for coastal defence. Places are represented by elevation views of buildings. The concern with coastal defence at this date was due to England’s continuing war with Spain. Although the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588 Philip II attempted further invasions during the 1590’s. A scale bar showing ‘myles and furlonges’ is included. The practical use of this map is hinted at by the differentiation in the presentation of domestic townscape views, shown in pictorial elevation, and the plan form that represents Camber Castle, a defensive military structure. A scale bar showing ‘myles and furlonges’ is included.
The description of Romney Marsh, Walland, Marshy, Denge and Gulforde marsh, with the divisions of their waterings, heads, armes, principal sewers and their gutts
This is a map of the Romney Marsh area, dating from around 1590. It shows the network of sewers and waterways in the area and is principally concerned with drainage. The locations of bridges are carefully recorded. The topography of the landscape is depicted with hills, trees, churches, towns, villages and windmills shown pictorially. A small island in the sea records the location where a village once stood. Camber castle is shown and the draughtsman has attempted to indicate the actual architectural features of the castle.
A Coloured Chart of the Course of the Rivers Thames and Medway, and of the Coasts of Kent and Sussex to Shoreham, with an Account of the Tides
This manuscript map of the south-east coast of England can be dated to around 1596. Although unsigned the handwriting suggests a possible attribution to [William] Borough who is known for his work as a harbour consultant .The map is concerned with the defence of the Thames and of London itself which was threatened by the Anglo-Spanish war. Raids on transatlantic shipping by English seamen such as Francis Drake and England’s support of the Protestant rebellion in the Spanish ruled Netherlands had induced the Catholic Philip II to plan an invasion of England. Although the Spanish armada was defeated by the English in 1588, England remained at war with Spain for many years and further attempts to invade were made by Philip of Spain. It is thought that this map was drawn between the dispersal of the "second Armada" in October 1596 and the assembly of the third Armada’ in the following spring. The draughtsman has borrowed topographical and hydrographic information from contemporary sources, maps by Symonson and Robert Norman. The careful attention given to the coast line around Rye and the differentiation between the original line of the cliffs and the deposits which created Romney Marsh is striking. [Borough, William]