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This plan of part of Cardiganshire shows the county town on the,north bank of the,River Teify as it,enters Cardigan,Bay. Further inland, the landscape is dominated by moorland and the peaks of the Presely Mountains, represented by dense brushwork interlining ('hachuring'). The huge blue stones,that make up,the ancient ceremonial site of Stonehenge came from these mountains -,a journey of some 200 miles.
This is a map of Pembrokeshire by Christopher Saxton dating from 1578. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. This map is actually a proof copy of one which forms part of Christopher Saxton’s Atlas of England and Wales. This atlas was first published as a whole in 1579. It consists of 35 coloured maps depicting the counties of England and Wales. The atlas is of great significance to British cartography as it set a standard of cartographic representation in Britain and the maps remained the basis for English county mapping, with few exceptions, until after 1750. During the reign of Elizabeth I, map use became more common, with many government matters referring to increasingly accurate maps with consistent scales and symbols, made possible by advances in surveying techniques. Illustrating the increasing use of maps in government matters, Lord Burghley, who had been determined to have England and Wales mapped in detail from the 1550s, selected the cartographer Christopher Saxton to produce a detailed and consistent survey of the country. The financier of the project was Thomas Seckford, Master of Requests at the Court of Elizabeth I, whose arms appear, along with the royal crest, on each map. Burghley has annotated this map, adding place names and a dotted line marking the route from Manernowen on the coast to Cardigan. At this time England was under threat of invasion from Catholic Spain, a threat which culminated in the events of the Spanish Armada. Defence of the realm depended on a good geographic and topographic knowledge, explaining Burghley's use of maps and his annotation of them, particularly at coastal locations. The map was engraved by one of a team of seven English and Flemish engravers employed to produce the copper plates for the atlas, although the individual engraver is not noted.
William Cecil, Lord Burghley