1 : 31680
The Roman road, south to Hereford and beyond, runs across the Arrow Valley and Shobdon Marshes from top to bottom of this plan., At lower right, the River Arrow joins the River Lugg south of Leominster., The surrounding countryside appears intensively farmed., Throughout this region of Herefordshire,,based on rich red clay, farmland,dominates,in a,landscape of,well-hedged fields scattered,with small woods and threaded by,streams and brooks.
1 : 31680
The Wye Valley runs from the top to the bottom of the sheet.Forming a natural border, the valley became a regular battleground throughout the Roman, Saxon Norman eras,and during the Marcher Wars in the reign of James I. To the left of the sheet are the peaks of Mynydd Eppynt. To the right, the border of England and Wales is marked by the ancient earth bank, Offa's Dyke. The castle town of Builth is depicted at the top of the sheet. Built at the end of the 12th century, the castle witnessed repeated conflicts, and frequently changed hands between the Welsh and English. After Edward I's campaign against the Welsh in 1277, the castle was refortified and transformed into a formidable fortress.