1 : 31680 Heavy brushwork interlining ('hachuring') depicting relief gives this map a three-dimensional quality. This elaborate hill shading and the attention given to communications routes conform to the military and cartographic standards employed by the Ordnance Survey. Buildings are infilled and blocked together in carmine at larger settlements, such as the historic town of Braughing towards the bottom of the plan. Braughing was strategically important due to its close proximity to three ancient roads: Icknield Way, Ermine Street and Stane Street. These roads were important for trade and communication. The dashed black-ink line which runs towards East End from the top-centre of the plan marks the boundary between Essex and Hertfordshire.