Insurance Plan of London North East District Vol. F: sheet 9
1 : 960 This detailed 1893 plan of London is one of a series of nineteen sheets in an atlas originally produced to aid insurance companies in assessing fire risks. The building footprints, their use (commercial, residential, educational, etc.), the number of floors and the height of the building, as well as construction materials (and thus risk of burning) and special fire hazards (chemicals, kilns, ovens) were documented in order to estimate premiums. Names of individual businesses, property lines, and addresses were also often recorded. Together these maps provide a rich historical shapshot of the commercial activity and urban landscape of towns and cities at the time.
The British Library holds a comprehensive collection of fire insurance plans produced by the London-based firm Charles E. Goad Ltd. dating back to 1885. These plans were made for most important towns and cities of the British Isles at the scales of 1:480 (1 inch to 40 feet), as well as many foreign towns at 1:600 (1 inch to 50 feet). Chas E Goad Limited Chas E Goad Limited
Charles Booth's 'Descriptive Map of London Poverty'. Detail showing the City of London and the East End
The East End of London is the hell of poverty. Like one enormous black, motionless giant kraken, the poverty of London lies there in lurking silence and encircles with its mighty tentacles the life and wealth of the City. So wrote J H Mackay in 1891. It was acknowledged that the blame lay with overcrowded housing and with a surplus of labour, which kept wages low for those lucky enough to find work. Statistics for 1888 showed that the East End had 8,465 official paupers - people 'living rough'. According to Charles Booth's survey in 1889, over a third of its inhabitants lived on or below the margin of poverty. His 17-volume survey included this coloured-coded map indicating London's poverty and prosperity street by street. The key to the colours used is as follows: Gold: Upper-middle and Upper classes.Wealthy. Red: Well-to-do. Middle-class. Pink: Fairly comfortable. Good ordinary earning. Purple: Mixed. Some comfortable, others poor. Pale Blue: Poor. 18s. to 21s. a week for moderate family Dark blue: Very poor, casual. Chronic want. Black: Lowest class. Vicious, semi-criminal. Booth, Charles
Plan showing the sewers in Tower Hamlets, 1843
From 1807, the East End was supplied with water pumped from the River Lea at Bow by the East London Waterworks Company. This was not, however, the continuous flow of water we take for granted today. Dr John Simon wrote, in 1849, of the thousands who "wholly depend on their power of attending at some fixed hour of the day, pail in hand, beside the nearest standcock; where, with their neighbours, they wait their turn; sometimes not without a struggle, during the tedious dribbling of a single small pipe. Household rubbish was piled into heaps in the street and outdoor toilets drained into cesspits. The survey of sanitation in Bethnal Green made by Hector Gavin in 1848 paints a sorry picture. Knightly Court was typical of the streets he visited: "In it there are two privies in a beastly state, full, and the contents overflowing into the court. There is one dust reservoir. One stand-tap supplies the seven houses; two cases of severe typhus lately occurred here, one died." This map of 1843 shows the distribution of sewers through the East End. They carried only surface water, contaminated with decayed rubbish from the streets and excrement from overflowing cesspits, and discharged it directly into the Thames - from which water companies pumped their drinking water. James Beek
PLAN of LONDON
Only the main roads appear on this map, giving the appearance of a rather spacious capital city. The new London Bridge is shown without its approaches. Pecked lines show the intended location of the Thames Tunnel. Marc Brunel, father of the great engineer Isobard, solved the problem of how to bore through soft ground or under water, inventing the tunnelling shield. Both father and son worked on the tunnel which was completed as a foot tunnel in 1843, before becoming a railway tunnel for the East London Railway in the 1860s. The East and West India Docks are also shown. Phillips, Horatio
LAURIE and WHITTLE NEW MAP OF LONDON WITH ITS ENVIRONS &C. Including the Recent Improvements
The title of this map of London and suburbs appears at top left, with the key to symbols and abbreviations at the top right and a compass rose at the bottom centre. The map is divided into mile squares with borders marked off in furlongs for reference. Squares, open spaces and city boundaries are distinguished in colour. This is a later edition of a map first issued in 1804, updated to include the new bridges and the approaches at Waterloo and Vauxhall (indicated by dotted lines). Built between 1809 and 1819, Vauxhall, Waterloo and Southwark bridges were projected, funded and constructed by private commercial companies hoping to profit from toll-paying traffic from Lambeth, Camberwell and the rest of south London. Laurie, Robert and Whittle, James
THE CIRCUITEER. A SERIES OF DISTANCE MAPS FOR ALL THE PRINCIPAL TOWNS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. INVENTED BY J. FREDERICHS AS A GUIDE FOR ASCERTAINING CAB FARES, PORTERAGE &c. &c.
The title of this map of Victorian London appears at top centre, with a scale bar at the foot of the plate. The map is divided into circles, each a half-mile in diameter, allowing the reader to ascertain the distance between two places at a glance. Each circle is also numbered for reference, with a key to the principal streets and squares a in panel below the map, together with an explanatory note. Repeated in French and German, this note reports London cab fares, set by Act of Parliament at 8d (pence) per mile and 4d for every additional half mile. Frederichs, J.
LAURIE'S NEW PLAN OF LONDON and its ENVIRONS with an Improved Scale FOR ASCERTENING DISTANCES
Map of London and the suburbs with title, imprint and dedication to Lord Viscount Melbourne in table at top right. Below the title, a note explaining that the map was based on the trigonometric survey by General Roy "combined with a new series of 52 stations on elevated situations from which the positions of upward to of 450 steeples, domes, turrets, vanes and other conspicuous objects within the limits of the plan, have been determined by means of more than 5000 angles." Laurie, Richard Holmes
LONDON IN MINIATURE WITH THE Surrounding AN ENTIRE NEW PLAN In which the Improvements both present and intended are actually reduced (by permission) from the surveys of Several Proprietors
The title of this map appears at top right, with scale bar at the bottom centre, and a compass rose near top left. Watercourses, roads and open spaces are depicted in colour. The map shows the proposed new bridges at Waterloo and Vauxhall, extending eastward on an added sheet to include the Isle of Dogs. Mogg, Edward
LAURIE and WHITTLE'S NEW MAP OF LONDON WITH ITS ENVIRONS
This is a later edition of Laurie and Whittle's folding map of London, first published in 1804. The title appears as an old inscription on an illustrated pyramid at top left, also showing city arms, ship, flag, anchor, flora and fauna. Explanation of symbols and abbreviations is given above the publisher's imprint at top right, with compass star at bottom centre. The border of the map is marked off in furlongs. Proposed works, including the Vauxhall and Waterloo bridges and their approaches, are highlighted in yellow. Laurie, Robert and Whittle, James
A New Map of LONDON and its ENVIRONS From an Original Survey
This London Map comprises two sheets, with title at top right, imprint below the title, compass star at middle right and the scale bar at bottom left. Set within a decorative border, the map extends beyond the built-up area of the city to include parts of Middlesex, Surrey, the Lea River Valley and Greenwich. Thompson, George
Stratford - Le - Bow
1 : 21120 This plan of north east London extends from the Isle of Dogs and Wapping at the bottom, to 'Layton Stone' and Epping Forest at the top. Field boundaries infilled with stripes depict tilled land. Major settlements are drawn in red ink. North of Stoke Newington, to the top left, a road is plotted as a series of fixed points pricked off with dividers and joined by ruled pencil lines. These protractions were made directly from the Ordnance Survey field books. Pencil rays intersect across the map, evidence of measurements taken by the surveyor between fixed triangulation points. Poplar Gut is outlined in red at the Isle of Dogs, the beginnings of the development of the West India Docks.
NEW PLAN OF LONDON AND THE ENVIRONS from an Original Survey EXTENDING 6 3/4 Miles North & South in which all New and Intended Buildings and Improvements are carefully Inserted
This folding map is set within a decorative border. The title and imprint feature at top right, the compass star at middle right, and scale bar at bottom left. The river, open spaces and the built-up area in the city are delineated in colour. This is the fourth edition of a map first issued by Thompson in 1823, updated with the addition of St. Katherine's Dock and the housing developments in the Marylebone and Mile End areas. Thompson, George