Oxonii, buckinghamiae et berceriae Comitatuum
This map of Oxfordshire and the neighbouring counties of Buckinghamshire and Berkshire is from the 1583 edition of the Saxton atlas of England and Wales. This atlas was first published as a whole in 1579. It consists of 35 coloured maps depicting the counties of England and Wales. The atlas is of great significance to British cartography as it set a standard of cartographic representation in Britain and the maps remained the basis for English county mapping, with few exceptions, until after 1750. During the reign of Elizabeth I map use became more common, with many government matters referring to increasingly accurate maps with consistent scales and symbols, made possible by advances in surveying techniques. Illustrating the increasing used of maps in government matters, Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State, who had been determined to have England and Wales mapped in detail from the 1550s, selected the cartographer Christopher Saxton to produce a detailed and consistent survey of the country. The financier of the project was Thomas Seckford Master of Requests at the Court of Elizabeth I, whose arms appear, along with the royal crest, on each map. Saxton, Christopher Ryther, Augustine
1 : 31680 This county boundary of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire is depicted as a black dotted line at bottom left. Down the right of the sheet, many triangulation points are marked in red ink. Toll roads are highlighted in yellow, with turnpikes indicated along their routes. A section of the Watling Street, between Dunstable and Little Brickhill, is indicated near the bottom of the sheet. This Roman road ran from London to Wroxeter in Wales, via St. Albans. Symbols distinguish different types land use, while shading is used to indicate relief. Hyett, William
1 : 31680 The county boundary of Buckinghamshire and Northamptonshire is depicted to the right of the sheet as a red pecked line. It can be seen following sections of the River Ouse. Two ancient forests are also shown: the Royal Forest of Whittlewood, a medieval hunting forest, is at middle left; and Salcey Forest, the heart of the ancient woodland belt of the East Midlands, is shown at top left. A section of the Watling Street is indicated from bottom left to top right. This ancient Roman road ran from London to Wroxeter in Wales, via St. Albans and Leicester (where it intersected the Fosse Way, the Roman road from Exeter to Lincoln). Boyce
1 : 31680 This field sketch describes the chalk hills of the Chilterns, including a section of the Grand Junction and the Aylesbury Canals. Some field boundaries on this drawing have been revised and corrected in red ink which suggests they,should be read as accurate delineations plotted from surveyed measurements.,A reservoir,located just above Wendover was also inserted at a later date. , Boyce
Estates at Windsor, Berkshire
This is a manuscript map of the area surrounding Windsor in Berkshire. It forms part of an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I’s Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. Burghley was in charge of administration for the Royal Estate of Windsor. The Royal Estates were notoriously slackly administered, a flaw that no official involved was keen to remedy as there were considerable personal advantages to be gained from inadequacies in the system. The map is drawn to scale with a scale bar of 5.5 - 6 miles. The many parks are shown by enclosure symbols, an important feature of any landscape for military purposes as it was in parks that troops could rest and horses graze. Communication routes such as roads and pathways are indicated by double or single broken lines and the rivers and the points at which they are bridged are also shown. The waterways were a vital communication route at the time, especially in this area where the Thames provides direct access to the centre of London.