Plan showing the sewers in Tower Hamlets, 1843
From 1807, the East End was supplied with water pumped from the River Lea at Bow by the East London Waterworks Company. This was not, however, the continuous flow of water we take for granted today. Dr John Simon wrote, in 1849, of the thousands who "wholly depend on their power of attending at some fixed hour of the day, pail in hand, beside the nearest standcock; where, with their neighbours, they wait their turn; sometimes not without a struggle, during the tedious dribbling of a single small pipe. Household rubbish was piled into heaps in the street and outdoor toilets drained into cesspits. The survey of sanitation in Bethnal Green made by Hector Gavin in 1848 paints a sorry picture. Knightly Court was typical of the streets he visited: "In it there are two privies in a beastly state, full, and the contents overflowing into the court. There is one dust reservoir. One stand-tap supplies the seven houses; two cases of severe typhus lately occurred here, one died." This map of 1843 shows the distribution of sewers through the East End. They carried only surface water, contaminated with decayed rubbish from the streets and excrement from overflowing cesspits, and discharged it directly into the Thames - from which water companies pumped their drinking water.
Stratford - Le - Bow
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This plan of north east London extends from the Isle of Dogs and Wapping at the bottom, to 'Layton Stone' and Epping Forest at the top. Field boundaries infilled with stripes depict tilled land. Major settlements are drawn in red ink. North of Stoke Newington, to the top left, a road is plotted as a series of fixed points pricked off with dividers and joined by ruled pencil lines. These protractions were made directly from the Ordnance Survey field books. Pencil rays intersect across the map, evidence of measurements taken by the surveyor between fixed triangulation points. Poplar Gut is outlined in red at the Isle of Dogs, the beginnings of the development of the West India Docks.
PLAN OF LONDON AND WESTMINSTER with the Borough of SOUTHWARK Being an INDEX to the Large Plan in forty Sheets
This folding map of London was originally published by Faden in 1818 as an index to Harwood's famous map of Regency London. This is a later edition of the map, issued by Wyld when he took over Faden's publishing business. The title, explanation and scale bar feature at top right. The boundaries of London, Westminster, Southwark, Lambeth, Marylebone, Finsbury and Tower Hamlets are outlined in colour. The map is divided into squares with letters and numbers for reference along the margins for reference, with an interpretive key in panel below the plan.
Rowe's map of London, westminster and Southwark, exhibiting the various improvements to the year 1804, detail showing the London and west india Docks
A canal and the two West India docks now cut across the neck of the Isle of Dogs to provide shipping with a shortcut across its marshy peninsular. A wall around its edge holds back the tidal Thames while windmills on the windy west side pump water from the marsh. As industry spreads, wealthy residents are lured away to the fashionable new suburbs rising to the west of London. Turnpikes appear, on the Hackney Road for example: an indication of the growing need for good roads and the money to maintain them. From the tangle of older streets, the line of the proposed new Commercial Road shoots straight across the open fields.
FAIRBURN'S PLAN of the proposed WET-DOCKS AND CUT from NEW GRAVEL LANE to BLACKWALL
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The plan's title and publisher's imprint appear at bottom left, with a compass star, key and scale bar at bottom centre.The boundary of the area to be developed is highlighted in red. After a Parliamentary Select Committee in 1796 condemned the congestion at the Port of London, a number of large-scale projects for new docking and shipping facilities were submitted to Parliament. Fairburn's plan illustrates the London merchants' scheme. It consists of an entrance dock that could accommodate 33 loaded ships, two main docks that would accommodate a total of 355 ships and a separate dock for lighters. The plan also included the creation of the 2" 3/4 mile long cut from Wapping to Blackwall. An improved version of this scheme would eventually materialise as the London Docks.
PLAN of the CITIES OF LONDON and WESTMINSTER, with the BOROUGH OF SOUTHWARK, exhibiting all the NEW BUILDINGS to the present YEAR MDCCCVI
As the 19th Century progressed, maps were often used as illustrations for general guides to London, for which there was a great demand. This map appeared in Lambert's 'History of London' of 1806. The title appears along the top with the reference table in a panel below the map. The plan extends eastward to include the East India Docks, opened in 1806.
The LONDON DOCKS
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This is Daniel Alexanders original design for the London Docks and Cut. The plan's title and key are at lower left, with the site of the new docks highlighted in blue. Alexander's original design included a 20-acre St. Georges Dock to the west and a seven-acre Shadwell Dock to the east. Each would have their own basin, and be linked by a small Tobacco Dock. Opened in 1805, London Docks were the nearest to the city, and for 21 years all imported tobacco, rice, wine and brandy (except that from the East and West Indies) had to unload there.
CRUCHLEY'S NEW PLAN OF LONDON IMPROVED TO 1826 INCLUDING THE EAST AND WEST INDIA DOCKS 223
The title of this folding map of London is inset in top border, with the publisher’s imprint and key to symbols in bottom border, scale bar near bottom right, and compass rose at top right. The river and open spaces are highlighted in colour. The map extends eastward on an added sheet to include the East and West India Docks. Cruchley, who first published the map in 1826, added the proposed Collier Docks in the Isle of Dogs to this later edition. The docks were never built and Millwall Docks now occupy part of the site
Cruchley, George Frederick
London surveyed or a new map of the cities of London and Westminster and the borough of Southwark. ...
from The world described, or, A new and correct sett of maps : shewing the kingdoms and states in all the known parts of the earth, with the principal cities, and most considerable towns in the world ... / ... by Herman Moll, geographer ...
Charles Booth's 'Descriptive Map of London Poverty'. Detail showing the City of London and the East End
The East End of London is the hell of poverty. Like one enormous black, motionless giant kraken, the poverty of London lies there in lurking silence and encircles with its mighty tentacles the life and wealth of the City. So wrote J H Mackay in 1891. It was acknowledged that the blame lay with overcrowded housing and with a surplus of labour, which kept wages low for those lucky enough to find work. Statistics for 1888 showed that the East End had 8,465 official paupers - people 'living rough'. According to Charles Booth's survey in 1889, over a third of its inhabitants lived on or below the margin of poverty. His 17-volume survey included this coloured-coded map indicating London's poverty and prosperity street by street. The key to the colours used is as follows: Gold: Upper-middle and Upper classes.Wealthy. Red: Well-to-do. Middle-class. Pink: Fairly comfortable. Good ordinary earning. Purple: Mixed. Some comfortable, others poor. Pale Blue: Poor. 18s. to 21s. a week for moderate family Dark blue: Very poor, casual. Chronic want. Black: Lowest class. Vicious, semi-criminal.
Insurance Plan of London North & North-East District Vol. E: Key Plan
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This "key plan" indicates coverage of the Goad 1899 series of fire insurance maps of London that were originally produced to aid insurance companies in assessing fire risks. The building footprints, their use (commercial, residential, educational, etc.), the number of floors and the height of the building, as well as construction materials (and thus risk of burning) and special fire hazards (chemicals, kilns, ovens) were documented in order to estimate premiums. Names of individual businesses, property lines, and addresses were also often recorded. Together these maps provide a rich historical shapshot of the commercial activity and urban landscape of towns and cities at the time.
The British Library holds a comprehensive collection of fire insurance plans produced by the London-based firm Charles E. Goad Ltd. dating back to 1885. These plans were made for most important towns and cities of the British Isles at the scales of 1:480 (1 inch to 40 feet), as well as many foreign towns at 1:600 (1 inch to 50 feet).
Chas E Goad Limited
Chas E Goad Limited
Plan de Londres tel quil Etoit avant l' incendre de 1666 Grave par Hollar
This is a later edition of a 1666map surveyed by Blome and engraved by Hollar. The title appears in French in a panel below the plan, with the key to streets and public buildings appearing in tables at top right, top left and bottom right. A compass star and scale bar are drawn at bottom right. Down both sides of the map are the coats of arms of the 12 Great City Companies (trade guilds), many of which have existed from the middle ages to the present day. Richard Blome was a heraldic writer and cartographer. His maps were often derivative, based on existing sources rather than original surveys.