Pencil lines radiating from trigonometrical stations cover this drawing. They show the angles used for measuring distances and plotting topographical features. To the left of the map on Chestnut Common, the word 'flag' denotes the site of such a station. Hoddesden Park Wood and surrounding woodland are shown by individual trees with a line at the base, indicating shadow. This laborious technique was often replaced by a more generalised, stippled representation of treetops. The Lee River, running from Standstead at the top of this drawing, branches to form a canal leading down to the Powder Mills, which manufactured Gun Powder for shipping to London. Locks on the canal are shown in red
KAART van LONDEN enz en van het NABY GELEGEN LAND ruim een Uur gaans. rondsom dezelve Stad; getrokken uit de groote gemeeten Kaart van de Hr. JOHN ROCQUE, Te AMSTERDAM by ISAAK TIRION 1754
In the second half of the18th century, the introduction of turnpike roads and the increased coach-traffic in and out of London contributed to the popularity of the maps of the countryside around the capital. This map of the area ten miles round the City of London was published in Amsterdam by Isaak Tirion. Based on John Rocque's survey of 1744, the map’s title, imprint and key appears in a table at top left. The scale bars are in a panel below the plan. Built-up areas are stippled in the City and hatched elsewhere.
Stratford - Le - Bow
1 : 21120
This plan of north east London extends from the Isle of Dogs and Wapping at the bottom, to 'Layton Stone' and Epping Forest at the top. Field boundaries infilled with stripes depict tilled land. Major settlements are drawn in red ink. North of Stoke Newington, to the top left, a road is plotted as a series of fixed points pricked off with dividers and joined by ruled pencil lines. These protractions were made directly from the Ordnance Survey field books. Pencil rays intersect across the map, evidence of measurements taken by the surveyor between fixed triangulation points. Poplar Gut is outlined in red at the Isle of Dogs, the beginnings of the development of the West India Docks.
Plan showing the sewers in Tower Hamlets, 1843
From 1807, the East End was supplied with water pumped from the River Lea at Bow by the East London Waterworks Company. This was not, however, the continuous flow of water we take for granted today. Dr John Simon wrote, in 1849, of the thousands who "wholly depend on their power of attending at some fixed hour of the day, pail in hand, beside the nearest standcock; where, with their neighbours, they wait their turn; sometimes not without a struggle, during the tedious dribbling of a single small pipe. Household rubbish was piled into heaps in the street and outdoor toilets drained into cesspits. The survey of sanitation in Bethnal Green made by Hector Gavin in 1848 paints a sorry picture. Knightly Court was typical of the streets he visited: "In it there are two privies in a beastly state, full, and the contents overflowing into the court. There is one dust reservoir. One stand-tap supplies the seven houses; two cases of severe typhus lately occurred here, one died." This map of 1843 shows the distribution of sewers through the East End. They carried only surface water, contaminated with decayed rubbish from the streets and excrement from overflowing cesspits, and discharged it directly into the Thames - from which water companies pumped their drinking water.
PAYNE'S IMPROVED PLAN OF LONDON
The title of this map appears at top right alongside the publisher’s imprint (in shield) and the city arms. The map is divided in half-mile squares with letters and numbers for reference running along the borders. It shows the Dover, Croydon, Greenwich, Blackwall, Eastern, North London, Great Northern and Birmingham railway lines and their termini.
Payne, Albert Henry
PLAN of the CITIES OF LONDON and WESTMINSTER, with the BOROUGH OF SOUTHWARK, exhibiting all the NEW BUILDINGS to the present YEAR MDCCCVI
As the 19th Century progressed, maps were often used as illustrations for general guides to London, for which there was a great demand. This map appeared in Lambert's 'History of London' of 1806. The title appears along the top with the reference table in a panel below the map. The plan extends eastward to include the East India Docks, opened in 1806.
LAURIE'S NEW PLAN OF LONDON and its ENVIRONS with an Improved Scale FOR ASCERTENING DISTANCES
Map of London and the suburbs with title, imprint and dedication to Lord Viscount Melbourne in table at top right. Below the title, a note explaining that the map was based on the trigonometric survey by General Roy "combined with a new series of 52 stations on elevated situations from which the positions of upward to of 450 steeples, domes, turrets, vanes and other conspicuous objects within the limits of the plan, have been determined by means of more than 5000 angles."
Laurie, Richard Holmes
THE CIRCUITEER. A SERIES OF DISTANCE MAPS FOR ALL THE PRINCIPAL TOWNS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. INVENTED BY J. FREDERICHS AS A GUIDE FOR ASCERTAINING CAB FARES, PORTERAGE &c. &c.
The title of this map of Victorian London appears at top centre, with a scale bar at the foot of the plate. The map is divided into circles, each a half-mile in diameter, allowing the reader to ascertain the distance between two places at a glance. Each circle is also numbered for reference, with a key to the principal streets and squares a in panel below the map, together with an explanatory note. Repeated in French and German, this note reports London cab fares, set by Act of Parliament at 8d (pence) per mile and 4d for every additional half mile.
NEW PLAN OF LONDON, WESTMINSTER AND SOUTHWARK
This is a later edition of the map of London, Westminster and Southwark first issued by Gardner in 1827. The map is enclosed in a border and features title along the top, key and scale bar along the bottom, with borough boundaries, open spaces and water courses and main roads in colour. Additions to earlier editions of the map include the Great Western, London and Birmingham, Eastern Counties, Blackwall and Croydon railways.
This map of Victorian London was produced for publication in the Post Office Directory of 1852. The map's title and imprint appear at top right. It shows the entire London railway system. With the exception of Blackfriars and Marylebone stations, all London termini were built in the between 1736and 1876. As the railway companies scrambled to buy land to redevelop central London, many people, mainly slum-dwellers, were left homeless or forced to move to outer suburbs like Tottenham and Edmonton.
Davies, Benjamin Rees
A New plan of LONDON and WESTMINSTER
The publisher's imprint of this folding map appears below the plan, with squares, open spaces, and the built-up area in the city distinguished from each other by colour. The map also shows the Regents Canal from Paddington to Shoreditch. Title and date are featured in the original slip case for the map, but don't appear on the map itself.
A New Map of LONDON and its ENVIRONS From an Original Survey
This London Map comprises two sheets, with title at top right, imprint below the title, compass star at middle right and the scale bar at bottom left. Set within a decorative border, the map extends beyond the built-up area of the city to include parts of Middlesex, Surrey, the Lea River Valley and Greenwich.