A New and Correct Mapp of Middlesex, Essex and Hertfordshire
Bland, Joseph, Parker, Samuel, Smyth, Payler and Warburton, John
Although it was not obligatory to record archaeological sites until 1816, many draughtsmen displayed their interest in history by indicating them prior to this date. At Pleshey, to the centre-bottom of the plan, a dark circular form represents the prehistoric earthworks used by the Romans, Saxons and Normans as a defensive position. At Barrington Hall to the left of centre, near the top, the details of ornamental gardens and avenues of trees are shown, an indication of the meticulous nature of the Survey.
This drawing covers the settlements and surrounding country of part of Essex. Brentwood is the largest of these settlements. The layout of the town is indicated by red blocks. The straight line of the road leading to the town reveals its Roman origin, although the draughtsman, unusually, does not label it as such. The main communication routes are coloured yellow, conforming to military cartographic standards. The meanderings of the River Crouch are painstakingly plotted, with the surrounding open land represented by dots. Budgen, Charles
Triangulation lines radiating from fixed points are clearly visible on this map. A pecked red line running adjacent to Lee River marks the boundary separating Essex from Hertforshire and Middlesex. Henhault Forest is shown by a stippled canopy of tree tops at the centre of the drawing. Perhaps the most interesting detail on this map is just south of the forest: a small drawing of a tree inside an enclosure marked 'Fairlop Oak'. This giant oak tree was something of a local landmark. In 1791, William Forsyth, gardener to George III, made unsuccessful attempts to halt the tree's decline. The year that this map was published, the tree was badly burnt by a fire started during a picnic. Its health steadily continued to wane until it was blown down in a gale in 1820. The inclusion of details such as the Fairlop Oak reveals the meticulous nature of the Survey, and the great attention paid to local detail. Budgen, Charles
Pencil lines radiating from trigonometrical stations cover this drawing. They show the angles used for measuring distances and plotting topographical features. To the left of the map on Chestnut Common, the word 'flag' denotes the site of such a station. Hoddesden Park Wood and surrounding woodland are shown by individual trees with a line at the base, indicating shadow. This laborious technique was often replaced by a more generalised, stippled representation of treetops. The Lee River, running from Standstead at the top of this drawing, branches to form a canal leading down to the Powder Mills, which manufactured Gun Powder for shipping to London. Locks on the canal are shown in red
1 : 31680 .Much consideration is given in this map to the detailed representation of trees., Woodland could provide either hindrance or cover for a regiment on the move., Trees are drawn with small vertical stems and a shadow at the base., Planted avenues are depicted in this fashion at Ware Park, above Hartford, and Eastwich Hall, at the bottom of the map., A pattern of open dotting depicts the untilled agricultural land dominating the valleys of the Rivers Rib and Ash.