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.Farmland and rolling hills dominate this plan of the Usk Valley, forming a natural break in defences along the southern Welsh border., In the 11th century, the English Marcher Lords and the Welsh often clashed here over the control of land., The remains of the legionary fort at Usk, one of the main Roman sites in Wales, are depicted in the centre of the drawing.
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This plan of part of Monmouthshire shows the valley of the River Usk running from top to bottom of the sheet, with the Abergavenny canal (used to carry a small trade up to Breconshire) following the course of the river. To the left of the plan, the Welsh valleys stretch down the coastal plain from the Brecon Beacons to the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport. Rich in iron ore, coal and limestone, the valleys developed from rural to industrial communities during the course of the 18th century. Highlighted in red along the mines and ironworks of the valleys are tramroads, the horse-worked railways predating the age of steam.